"Simpson's paradox (or Simpson's reversal, Yule–Simpson effect, amalgamation paradox, or reversal paradox), is a phenomenon in probability and statistics, in which a trend appears in several different groups of data but disappears or reverses when these groups are combined. —s.v. Simpson's Paradox, Wikipedia. An example using arithmetic from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: 1/5 < … Continue reading Simpson’s Paradox
Open Question: Should we make an effort to change our minds in some fundamental way? And if so, how? There are a number of stories of people suffering a traumatic brain injury that results in the brain being rearranged in a way that gives them a new ability. Generally, this involves some skill with art, … Continue reading Rearranging Our Minds
"We all spend a lot of our time talking to bosses or investors or marketing people or press or friends or other developers. I’m totally convinced that a new idea or a new plan or a new technique is never really understood when you just explain it. People will often think they understand, and they’ll … Continue reading You Can’t Tell People Anything
Free people think for themselves.
"A mental model is an explanation of how something works. It is a concept, framework, or worldview that you carry around in your mind to help you interpret the world and understand the relationship between things. Mental models are deeply held beliefs about how the world works... ...To quote Charlie Munger again, '80 or 90 … Continue reading Mental Models: How to Train Your Brain to Think in New Ways
"To evaluate the universal effectiveness of the Aesop’s Fable paradigm, we applied this paradigm to a previously untested taxon, the raccoon (Procyon lotor). We first trained captive raccoons to drop stones into a tube of water to retrieve a floating food reward. Next, we presented successful raccoons with objects that differed in the amount of … Continue reading Raccoon 22’s Cognition