I was thinking about the differences between the noun judgment, “[t]he act or process of judging; the formation of an opinion after consideration or deliberation,” and its adjective judgmental, “[i]nclined to make judgments.” The adjectival form, by being inclined to make judgements, seems to suggest more opinionated based on prejudices rather than inclined to form them after consideration or deliberation.
To clarify a bit more, I turned to Webster, which has seven aspects to the definition of judgment:
- The act of judging; the operation of the mind, involving comparison and discrimination, by which a knowledge of the values and relations of things, whether of moral qualities, intellectual concepts, logical propositions, or material facts, is obtained; as, by careful judgment he avoided the peril; by a series of wrong judgments he forfeited confidence.
- The power or faculty of performing such operations (see 1); esp., when unqualified, the faculty of judging or deciding rightly, justly, or wisely; good sense; as, a man of judgment; a politician without judgment.
- The conclusion or result of judging; an opinion; a decision.
- The act of determining, as in courts of law, what is conformable to law and justice; also, the determination, decision, or sentence of a court, or of a judge; the mandate or sentence of God as the judge of all.
- (Philos.) (a) That act of the mind by which two notions or ideas which are apprehended as distinct are compared for the purpose of ascertaining their agreement or disagreement. See 1. The comparison may be threefold: (1) Of individual objects forming a concept. (2) Of concepts giving what is technically called a judgment. (3) Of two judgments giving an inference. Judgments have been further classed as analytic, synthetic, and identical. (b) That power or faculty by which knowledge dependent upon comparison and discrimination is acquired. See 2.
- A calamity regarded as sent by God, by way of recompense for wrong committed; a providential punishment.
- (Theol.) The final award; the last sentence.
My sense is that judgment, in modern usage, sticks with the main line of the definition in 1, i.e., careful consideration of discriminating rightly, justly or wisely. Whereas judgmental conveys the sense of the definition of 2 and 4, it’s an opinion by the unqualified, rendered based on whether it conforms to some arbitrary standard. Interesting that the form of the word can give such a different shade of meaning.